In this XSS tutorial I will explain the basics of cross site scripting and the damage that can done from an XSS attack.
Many people treat an XSS vulnerability as a low to medium risk vulnerability, when in reality it is a damaging attack that can lead to your users being compromised. SQL Injection is a more easily understood vulnerability, as it involves attacking a web application to extract data or modify the web apps back-end database.
An XSS attack involves compromising the users browser rather than the actual web application; keep in mind that the web application is still involved as it is where the attack will originate. So in a typical attack; the bad guy will leverage the web application to effectively launch a browser based attack back at an end user.
Attacker -> exploits web application -> web application delivers a malicious script to a normal users browser -> attacker now has the ability to control the users browser. This is bad for the user and bad for you if you manage the web application.
Some examples of the damage an XSS attack can cause:
- Redirect page to phishing sites, or fake login pages
- Steal the users cookies, allowing them access to other web applications with authenticated sessions
- Insert links to remotely hosted client side exploits within a html body; with the goal of installing malware on the system (key loggers, remote access tools)
These are the most common and dangerous attack outcomes, which typically lead to complete compromise of a users system or personal information.
How does XSS work?
There are different types of XSS attack and different exploitation points but this is a typical and easy to understand scenario.
How to prevent XSS
Sanitize the input, all user submitted input anywhere in an application must be treated as hostile and filtered. This should be done by the application code, but can also be performed by a web application firewall (WAF) such as mod_security. The most effective way to prevent this is to do both, use well coded applications and have a WAF or filtering as a second line of defense.
In addition there is a HTTP Header that can be used to leverage features in a users browser to prevent XSS attacks. This is the X-XSS-Protection HTTP Header.
Keep in mind that the malicious input could be executed from not only script tags but also the body tag, image tags and more. A browser can be quite forgiving even if the resulting html is broken, it still may execute the script.
This tutorial is aimed at those who need a basic understanding of cross site scripting. For further information take a look at the resources available on the OWASP web site.